The first phone for millions was just Nokia «tube»: weighty, with a black and white screen and mono ring tones. That is why the Finnish company, in spite of the vicissitudes of the last few years, causing many very fond memories. Buying Nokia consumer division of Microsoft – a good occasion to remember its history, which goes back almost 150 years.
Paper, electricity, rubber and cables (1865-1967)
Back in 1865 a mining engineer Fredrik Idestam opened a paper mill in the city of Tampere, which then, as the entire territory of Finland, was part of the Russian Empire. After several years in business Idestama joined his old friend – historian Leopold Mehelin. In honor of the little river Nokia, on the banks of which housed the pulp and paper industry, and IDEST Mehelin named their by Nokia.
At the end of the nineteenth century IDEST he retired and the reins passed to the Board of Nokia Mehelinu. And he, being a man of far-sighted, determined to explore new areas of business. In addition to papermaking Nokia became involved in electricity generation.
Respirator Nokia M61 (1960-1980 years)
In 1922, a controlling stake in Nokia shares purchased company Finnish Rubber Works (founder Edward Filled), a major producer of rubber products. And at the same time to “grab” and the company of Finnish Cable Works (founder Avrid Wikstrom), which produced electric cables. Working under one wing, the three companies officially remained fragmented way up to 1967, when it happened a long-awaited merger.
The telecommunications business (1968-1995)
In the mid-1960s, Nokia and Salora company begins work on the high-frequency radio technology. The result of their labors was the ARP standard for cellular communication, which has become the main car radiotelephone Autoradiopuhelin.
DX200 switch for automatic telephone exchanges – in the mid-1970s, one of the first telecommunications products Nokia was released. By the time a commercial cellular network standard based on ARP covered almost the entire territory of Finland.
The military cipher machine Nokia Sanomalaite (1970-1980 years)
In 1979 there was the second major merger in the history of Nokia: the company merged its telecom division with Salora. The joint venture was named Mobira. And five years later, Nokia bought Salora owned part of the company and became the sole owner of the brand Mobira.
Nokia MikroMikko 1 personal computer (1981)
In 1984, Nokia has launched one of the world’s first portable phone – Mobira Talkman. However, this device called “mobile phone” will turn unless a stretch – it weighed 4.7 kg. Mobira Talkman consisted of two parts: a transceiver with a retractable antenna and a massive battery, as well as conversational tube with a keyboard.
Portable phone Mobira Talkman
For three years technological advances in the telecommunications industry has made a great step forward: the mobile phone Nokia Cityman «lost» to 750 grams and has already placed in one hand. The model has become very popular for its time. In the photo with Mobira Cityman in hand captured even Mikhail Gorbachev, the head of the Soviet Union, for which he received a phone playful title of “the Hump.”
Cell phone Nokia Cityman, also known as “the Hump” (right – Mikhail Gorbachev)
Step by step Nokia has moved to the ARP standard for NMT-900, and then to GSM. In 1992, the world saw the first GSM-phone Finnish company – a model of the Nokia 1011. The device has an updated design (similar to the current model), but still was equipped with a retractable antenna, which was then a compulsory component.
GSM-phone Nokia 1011 (1992 year)
That same year, the company’s slogan became famous phrase Connecting people, and two years later – Nokia 2100 phone comes with a branded Nokia Tune melody bell. It is Nokia’s first European manufacturers of mobile phones out on the market of Japan, where local brands dominate. Around the world, it has sold more than 20 million. The Nokia 2100 copies.
Nokia 2100 model (1994, not to be confused with the eponymous model 2003)
The Golden Age (1996-2009)
In the late 1990s, Nokia became the world’s largest mobile phone manufacturer. In the best years, its market share is estimated at nearly 40 percent. He contributed to the success of a number of revolutionary and a successful phone models.
So, in 1996 came Nokia 9000 Communicator with a monochrome screen, a QWERTY-keyboard and GEOS operating system. “Under the hood” hiding the Intel x86 (frequency 24 MHz) and 8 MB of flash memory, of which to store user data was available only 2 MB. However, storage can be expanded with MMC memory cards.
Nokia Communicator 9000
In 1999 he was presented with the Nokia 7110 supports mobile Internet WAP, and in 2000 – Nokia 9210 with color display. In 2002 came the first smartphone Nokia – Model 7650 running Symbian OS. The device not only been carried out in the form of a slider, but also became the first camera phone company.
Since that time, smart phones have become an important part of Nokia telecommunications business. In 2003 came the Nokia 6600 model is the first sold millions of copies among Symbian-devices. In 2006 came the popular smartphone Nokia N73 (with support for 3G-networks and the front-facing camera), and a year later – a slider Nokia N95 with a 5 megapixel camera.
The sign of the Nokia 7110, 9210 and 7650
Smartphones Nokia 6600, N73 and N95
In 2008, in response to the output of Apple iPhone, Nokia introduced its first smartphone with a touch screen – model 5800 XpressMusic. The device from a technical point of view turned out interesting and sold well, but it is considered the beginning of the end of the “golden age» Nokia. A worthy competitor to the Apple iPhone and then Android-smartphone Nokia 5800 XpressMusic and could not be.
The Nokia 5800 XpressMusic
Restructuring by Elop (2010-2013)
In autumn 2010, the market entered the smartphone Nokia N8 with a significantly redesigned Symbian 3 operating system. And then for the position of executive director of the Finnish company has been appointed Stephen Elop, a native of of Microsoft.
With the arrival of Elop Nokia vector of development has changed in the direction of the mobile Windows Phone platform, while work on the Symbian and MeeGo project was suspended. Nokia’s market share has declined from 29 percent of the smartphone market (2010) to 3 per cent (2013). However, the blame Elop and Nokia engineers is not necessary: Symbian has become obsolete and its Finnish company, in any case, it was necessary to look for a new mobile platform.
In the first days of September 2013 officially unveiled what has long been waiting for: Microsoft buys Nokia units engaged in the production of mobile phones. So, the history of Nokia as a consumer electronics manufacturer is over. Although the company will continue to produce a variety of equipment for cellular operators and to develop its services, it seems, the Nokia brand in the market of portable devices are not waiting for the fate of the once less popular Siemens and Ericsson.